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Pregnancy & HIV MTCT

Vitamin Supplements May Increase Amount of HIV in Breast Milk and Raise Risk of Breast Infection

Use of certain vitamin supplements may increase the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission during breast-feeding, according to 2 recently published studies. One study found that viral load in breast milk increased when women took vitamin A and beta-carotene, while the other found that a multi-vitamin supplement was associated with a greater likelihood of mastitis, or breast inflammation.

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Antiretroviral Therapy for Mother or Infant Reduces HIV Transmission during Breast-feeding

Treating HIV positive mothers with a combination antiretroviral regimen or giving infants nevirapine for 28 days after birth both reduced the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission during breast-feeding, according to findings from the BAN Study reported in the June 17, 2010 New England Journal of Medicine. But the Mma Bana Study, described in the same issue, found that women with HIV should start antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy to have the greatest effect in reducing transmission risk.alt

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No Significant Association between Nevirapine (Viramune) and Liver Enzyme Elevation Regardless of Pregnancy Status

A new study of more than 2000 women published in the November 27, 2009 issue of AIDS found no significant link between use of the NNRTI nevirapine (Viramune) and liver enzyme elevation. Nevirapine use was not associated with liver toxicity in pregnant or non-pregnant women, but pregnancy itself increased the risk of liver problems in women with HIV.

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Large Meta-analysis Finds No Link between Efavirenz (Sustiva) and Birth Defects

A meta-analysis of 16 studies looking at more than 8000 live births to HIV positive mothers found that using efavirenz (Sustiva, also in the Atripla combination pill) during the first trimester of pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of birth abnormalities, according to a report in the June 19, 2010 issue of AIDS.

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ICAAC 2009: Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Indicates Use of Tenofovir (Viread) by Pregnant Women Does Not Raise Risk of Birth Defects

Data submitted to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR), which collects reports of adverse events associated with use of antiretroviral drugs by HIV positive women during pregnancy, show no link between use of tenofovir (Viread, also in the Truvada and Atripla coformulation) and congenital abnormalities, according to a presentation at the 49th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2009) this week in San Francisco.


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